Eye diseases and conditions can range from mildly annoying to severe and even cause a loss of vision in some cases. However, it is common for eye diseases to remain undiagnosed till the vision is impaired, as people don’t normally go for regular check ups with their ophthalmologist, unless they have some vision impairments.
The eye consists of various parts like the Cornea, Iris, Pupil, Retina, Tear Ducts and Optic nerves. All these parts work in combination to offer clear vision to us. When there are problems or a malfunctioning of any of these parts, it may lead to various eye diseases or problems, leading to blindness.
Some eye diseases or problems can be minor ones, whereas others, if not treated on time, could lead to a permanent vision loss. In general, eye problems or eye diseases can be classified into the following types:
An injury or a traumatic incident could cause eye diseases. However, an important cause is heredity in which recessive genes could be a reason. In some cases, advancing age or poor nutrition could lead to eye diseases. Exposure to sun may also damage the eye, especially in case of people over the age of 40.
Athletes or pilots flying fighter jets could have eye diseases due to injury or trauma. Pressure, age, poor maintenance of the eyes and diabetes are other factors leading to eye diseases.
Many eye diseases do not offer any early symptoms. They might be painless and you may not be able to see any difference in vision till the disease becomes quite advanced. If you experience a change of vision, such as your surroundings looking dim or you view flashes of light, it is advisable to consult the doctor immediately. Early detection can prevent loss of vision. Some other symptoms that you need to be alert to are pain in the eyes, double vision, secretion from the eye, inflammation or any other external manifestations.
An ophthalmologist has to be consulted for diagnosing eye diseases. They make use of staining drops or special instruments for viewing the iris or the pupil. They can view the other inner parts of the eye, such as the cornea and diagnose whether there are scratches or bruises or any other disease.
A test called the contrast sensitivity test can help diagnose underlying problems of the diseases. Dilation drops are used for viewing any damage to the eyes with the help of a biomicroscope. There are also some simple tests, such as reading eye charts and so on for diagnosing other eye problems or diseases.
In general, it is better to protect your eyes with regular eye examinations. Some treatments are simple, while others are more invasive. For instance, in case of glaucoma, eye drops are used for reducing the eye pressure. In some cases, laser surgery is done for eye diseases. Cataract surgery is the most common one performed for many. Surgical treatment can help patients regain their normal vision, impaired due to the onset of eye diseases.
However, there are some eye diseases and conditions that do not have any approved treatment. Good nutrition can slow down the regression caused due to some eye diseases like macular degeneration. Some conditions like astigmatism only need a corrective lens, though surgical procedures are also used in some cases.